Both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes can be dangerous to health. In general, individuals with diabetes will either have a total lack of insulin (or type I diabetes) or very low insulin levels or the body fails to utilize the insulin effectively (or type II diabetes). To understand what is the Difference Between Type1 And Type 2 Diabetes better, here is a clear table explaining it below:

Types of Diabetes

What Is The Difference Between Type1 And Type 2 Diabetes?

  Type 1 Type 2
1. Often seen during childhood and hence is known as juvenile-onset diabetes or Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM). Occurs during adulthood or old age and is known as or adult onset diabetes or Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM).
2. Symptoms are seen, and treatment is sought during childhood itself. Symptoms are usually diagnosed only during adulthood and go untreated until such time.
3. An autoimmune condition that leads to little or no insulin production in the body. The body produces insulin, but it is not enough to meet the needs of the cells in the body.
4. Around 5 to 10 people among 100 having diabetes suffer from this type. Majority of diabetics fall under this category with 90 to 95 in 100 afflicted with this type.
5. The immune system in our body itself destroys the insulin generating cells ultimately resulting in no insulin. An insulin resistance situation is created in the body since it is not able to use the available rightly as the cells have become less responsive to it
6. One of the major differences between type one and type two diabetes is that in type 1 prevention is not possible Lifestyle changes and healthy habits can either prevent or delay the onset of the disease.
7. Symptoms include, but are not limited to:

  • Feeling very thirsty
  • Rapid loss of weight
  • Frequent urination
  • Feeling very hungry
  • Extreme weakness and fatigue is felt
  • Nausea &vomiting
  • Irritability
  • Skin infections
Symptoms include, but are not limited to:

  • Rapid loss of weight
  • Frequent urination
  • Feeling very hungry & thirsty
  • Extreme weakness and fatigue
  • Nausea, vomiting, irritability
  • Blurred vision
  • Skin infections and itching
  • Bodily sores that take time to heal
  • Feeling of numbness in feet
8. Onset is rapid and this is another difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Onset is slow and often takes years, and this is another difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
9. Mostly seen in people of normal build or are thin. Mostly seen in obese people said to be overweight.
10. Caused mostly due to genetic, autoimmune and environmental factors. Caused mostly due to genetic as well as unhealthy lifestyle factors.
11. Seen in people of all races and ethnicity across geographies. Mostly seen in Asian, Native American, Afro-American, Hispanic or Pacific Islanders.
12. Low blood sugar levels are often seen, causing weakness, dizziness, sweating, etc. In this type, low blood sugar levels are not seen unless treatment options are not followed.
13. There is no known cure, but complications arising out of type 1 diabetes can be managed. There is no known cure, but the disease can be controlled and managed.
14. Treatment options include:

  • Insulin injections
  • In a few cases orally taken  medicines as well
  • Diet restrictions and changes
  • Physical activities
  • Cholesterol level monitoring
  • Blood pressure monitoring and controlling
  • Periodic blood sugar level checks to keep track
Treatment options include:

  • Prescribed diabetes medication
  • Insulin injections in a few cases
  • Healthy, prescribed diet
  • Regular exercise
  • Cholesterol & Blood pres level monitoring
  • Blood pressure monitoring and controlling
  • Periodic blood sugar level checks to keep track
15. Usually, diagnosis is linked to high levels of ketone. Diagnosis is usually linked to high blood pressure and/or cholesterol levels.
16. Risk factors include:

  • Family history
  • Genetics and age
  • Exposure to viruses like mumps virus, Coxsackie virus, Epstein-Barr virus and ycytomegalovirus
  • Low Vitamin D in the body.
  • Drinking water containing nitrates.
  • Early exposure to cow’s milk.
  • Early exposure to infant formulas.
Risk factors include:

  • Family history – if any family member has it, there is a risk.
  • Age – the older a person, higher are his or her chances of getting type two diabetes.
  • Body weight
  • Distribution of fat in body.
  • Race and ethnicity
  • Lack of exercise
  • Gestational diabetes.
  • Certain medical conditions like Polycystic ovarian syndrome.
17. Complications that can occur as a result of this type of diabetes are:

  • Nerve damage
  • Kidney damage
  • Vision issues
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Pregnancy complications
  • Foot damage
  • Erectile dysfunction in men
  • Dry vagina in women
  • Teeth and gum related issues
Complications that can occur as a result of this type of diabetes are:

  • Nerve & kidney damage
  • Lowered immunity
  • Vision issues
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Foot damage
  • Skin diseases & infections.
  • Hearing impairment
  • Increased chances of Alzheimer’s disease

Prevention Choices

Many symptoms are common to both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, though there are distinctive differences as listed above. Prevention or cure of type 1 diabetes is not possible as has already been mentioned above. However, the complication arising out of this condition can be controlled and managed to a certain extent. This requires knowledge and training as taking insulin injections are necessary. Hence, patients or the caretakers will have to understand and follow the guidelines for the same. A few options to follow:

  • Taking prescribed medicines as per routine
  • Maintain a healthy diet and lifestyle
  • Regular exercise
  • Stress reduction
  • Constant monitoring of low as well as high blood sugar levels; this helps in reducing risks of vision damage as well.
  • Taking care of your skin and body and ensuring proper medical treatment regarding any cuts and sores
  • Constant checks for heart and kidney functions

Also Read : Does Insulin Cause Weight Gain

Type 2 diabetes is a progressive disease, and the prevention choices for this are:

  • Maintain a good, healthy lifestyle
  • Manage your weight
  • Follow a balanced and healthy diet
  • Include exercise in your daily schedule
  • Eat more of fresh foods and salads and decrease intake of processed foods
  • Quit smoking if you are a smoker
  • Limit alcohol intake
  • Periodic checks for blood pressure and other relevant health checkups for early detection just in case.

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